It is related from Anas ibn Malik in al-Bukhari that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Among the signs of the Hour are the disappearance of knowledge, the establishment of ignorance, the drinking of wine and the appearance of fornication." Abu Hurayra was heard to relate from the Prophet, "Knowledge will be taken away, ignorance and sedition will appear, and there will be a lot of killing."
The first of these signs of the deterioration of humanity and approaching end of time is the disappearance of the knowledge which we are commanded to seek in words of Allah, "Say: Lord, increase me in knowledge." (20:114) The importance of knowledge and its consequences is expressed throughout the Qur'an: "Only His slaves who have knowledge fear Allah," (35:28) and "Only those with knowledge will understand it," (29:43) and "And they say, 'If only we had listened or used our intellects we would not have been among the people of the Blaze." (67:10) The list of ayats about this goes on and on. Without knowledge you will not fear Allah and will not understand, and hence are likely to end up in the Fire.
The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If Allah desires good for someone, He gives him understanding in the deen. Knowledge is gained through learning." Abu Dharr pointed to his neck and said, "If you were to put the sword here and I thought that I could finish one sentence which I heard from the Prophet before you finished me, I would say it."
'Ali stated, "Knowledge is better than riches, for knowledge guards you while you guard riches. Knowledge governs while riches are governed. Riches diminish with spending but knowledge increases with it."
The people of knowledge are 'the heirs of the Prophets', as the Messenger of Allah said. He also said, "Wisdom adds honour to the noble and exalts the slave until he attains to the level of kings." He also said, "A single faqih is more formidable to Shaytan than a thousand worshippers." This is because the one with knowledge can distinguish between the halal and the haram, and see the perils and machinations of Shaytan and thus avoid the traps he sets.
But you must take care with knowledge. Knowledge can be a dangerous thing. Knowledge can be confused with information and knowledge can be misused. Hammad ibn Salama, who was thought to be one of the Abdal, said, "Whoever utters hadith for the sake of other than Allah is deceived by it." A commentator pointed out that knowledge can deceive him because knowledge is like the ferocious lion and hadith is the core of knowledge. This lion can only be overcome through the help of Allah by having fear of Allah and sincere intention. Even if you overcome the lion, you must still be alert because if you ignore and neglect it, it will become unsubmissive. Then the lion will attack its owner and kill him. So knowledge is a dangerous creature requiring great caution and care.
This is reflected in what the Prophet said which is reported in al-Bukhari, "Allah will not take away knowledge from His servants, but knowledge will be taken away as the men of knowledge are taken away until there is not a single man of knowledge left. Then people will take ignorant men for their leaders who will be asked something and will give a fatwa (decision) without any knowledge. They will go astray and lead others astray." This does not mean that they do not have libraries of tafsir, hadith and commentaries. Other hadiths and sayings of the Prophet describe people who know the Qur'an by heart, but do not know what it means or what it says. Their knowledge is in the books and on the tongues, and not in the heart or on the limbs.
Abu'd-Darda' related that he heard the Prophet say, "Allah revealed to one of the Prophets, 'Say unto those who study fiqh for a purpose other than the deen and to those who acquire knowledge for a purpose other than that of acting according to it, that they appear before people in sheep's clothing but inwardly are ravening wolves. Their tongues are sweeter than honey, but their hearts are more bitter than colocynth. They act deceitfully against Me and scorn Me. I will confront them with temptations which would confound even the wise."
Ibn Mas'ud stated, "The Qur'an was revealed in order that men may direct their lives according to its teaching. But instead you have made it your life work."
Abu Allah ibn 'Ata' said, "Knowledge is dependent upon acting on it." It is just as Imam ash-Shafi'i said, "Knowledge is not what is memorised. Knowledge is what benefits." In other words, that which has results.
Hence we can see that knowledge must entail action. 'Umar b. al-Khattab asked Ka'b who the lords of knowledge were. He replied that they are those who act according to what they know.
The goal of Muslim (knowledge) is to seek the pleasure of Allah and to create and maintain an environment in which one can act without hindrance for the pleasure of Allah, worship Allah as He should be worshipped, and follow the commands of Allah and avoid the things He has prohibited. It is exceedingly difficult to put one's knowledge into practice if one is drowning in a sea of usury, bereft of any leadership to show one which way to swim, let alone how to get out. Hence the neccessity of recognising the destructive and haram nature of usury and the fact that amirate is necessary to help implement action by knowledge.
Action is necessarily wider than the sphere of the individual. It is also important not to turn Islam into a private religion and divorce it from the arena of political and social action - as the Reformation ultimately did to Christianity by demolishing the political unity of Christendom and replacing it with the nebulous area of private conscience. In fact, this modern Reformationist trend is attempting to insinuate itself into Islam along with the view that if one's private spiritual state is sound - or seems to be sound - then there is no pressing need to carry the business into the social arena. This results in complacency and a gradual weakening of Islam, an erosion of its natural economic, political and social thrust. What was once a small crack soon becomes a vast chasm.
Allah says, "You have a good model in the Messenger of Allah." (33:21) The word which Allah uses for model is "uswa" which means an example or exemplar and the root of the word also carries a connotation of healing and consolation. The healing in the root of the word "asa" is a surgical healing. The healing involved is of a surgical nature. It is cutting away the source of the poison to heal the body. The body in this case is the Muslim Umma which is failing to act upon what it knows. Or indeed, it is failing to act because its so-called leaders are stifling real action and many aspiring leaders are directing people in the wrong direction.
The Muslim Umma is definitely a body which is in need of healing. The question is: where is one to find it? The answer is: in the model of behaviour shown by the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which continued to be practised in Madina where the bulk of Companions were located. 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "When a sedition occurs, if people would only refer the business to the people of Madina, and if they agree on something, then the business would be right. But when a dog barks, people follow it." This is because, as we said, hadith is a lion. The jurist 'Abdullah ibn Wahb said, "The hadith misguide people other than the men of knowledge. If it had not been for Malik and al-Layth, I would have been lost.' He was asked, "How is that?" He replied, "I knew a lot of hadiths and it confused me. I used to present them to Malik and al-Layth and they would say, 'Take this and leave that.'"
Hence the stress on following those who KNOW what is meant by the hadith and whether it is acted upon in a general manner or not. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "I forbid by Allah, the Mighty, the Exalted, that a man relate a hadith of action different from it," i.e. than what the practice ('amal) of Madina was. Malik ibn Anas said, "The men of the people of knowledge among the Tabi'un reported hadiths which had been conveyed to them from others and they said, "We are not ignorant of this, but the past action is other than it."
Ibn Mahdi said, "Often I will have many hadiths on a particular subject but will find the people of the Suffa, the people of Madina, following something contrary to it. Therefore those hadiths become weak in my opinion." Ibn al-Mu'adhdhil said, "I heard a man ask Ibn Majishun, 'Why did you relate the hadith and then leave it?' He replied, 'So that it will be known that we left it with full knowledge of it." It is worth noting that none of the various seditions and sects which developed did so in Madina because they applied this criterion.
The process which they followed is described in a letter of Malik ibn Anas to al-Layth ibn Sa'id:
"After he (the Prophet) was gone, the people followed those from among his community who were given authority after him. When something happened to them that they had knowledge about, they carried it out. If they did not have knowledge of it, they asked about it and then took the strongest of what they found concerning the matter in hand through ijtihad helped by recentness of their contact (with the Prophet). If someone opposed them or said something else which was stronger than the ruling they had made and better than it, they left the former and acted upon the latter.
"Then the Tabi'un after them travelled this Path and followed those sunan. Since the business in Madina was outward and acted upon, I have not seen anyone who opposed it because of the inheritance they had received which no one is allowed to plagiarise or lay claim to. If the people of other cities had begun to say, 'This is the action which is in our city and this is what happened in it from those before us, they would not be certain about that."
Part of this Path is to be extremely careful about rushing to declare something unlawful (haram): Malik said, " Nothing is harder for me than when I am asked a question about the halal and the haram because this is absolute in the judgement of Allah. I met the people of knowledge and fiqh in our land and if one of them was asked such a question, it was as if death were dearer to him. But I see the people of this time desiring to discuss it and give fatwa. If they had understood what it is that they are heading for Tomorrow, they would have done little of this. As for 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, 'Ali and the best of the Companions, and the best generation to whom the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sent, when questions came to them, they would gather together the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and ask. Then and only then would they give a fatwa on it. The people of our time now pride themselves in their fatwas and the knowledge they have. It was not the business of the people nor of those who passed away before us who are followed and on whom Islam is based to say, 'This is halal and this is haram,' but they would say, 'I dislike this' and 'I think this.' But as for the halal and the haram, this is inventing things against Allah"
Malik also forbade arguing about the Deen. He said, 'Quarrelling and argument in matters of knowledge remove the light of belief from the heart,' and 'Disputation hardens people's hearts and brings about rancour.' Malik was asked, 'Should a man with knowledge of the Sunna argue about it?' He said, 'No. He should inform people about the Sunna if they will accept it from him. Otherwise he should remain silent.' This does not preclude active discussion of matters of fiqh for the sake of discovering the truth but it does exclude debate for the sake of debate because it leads to a hardening of positions in the heat of argument and condemning one's opponent out of hand.
Al-Hasan al-Basri said, "Two innovations have appeared in Islam: a man of bad judgement who holds that the Garden will be the reward only for those who see eye to eye with him, and a man of luxury and extravagance who worships this world. .. Reject these two for they are doomed to the Fire."
So we have three types of people in respect of knowledge:
- one who follows true knowledge and applies it;
- one who seeks to satisfy his appetites,
-and one who seeks to have people follow his opinions.
Incidentally, Plato also puts mankind into these three classes according to the element of the soul which prevails in them.
As far as truly useful knowledge is concerning, there is the following story of Hatim al-Asamm and the knowledge that he acquired from his teacher, Shaqiq al-Balkhi. It is reported that Shaqiq asked Hatim how long he had been with him. Hatim replied that it had been thirty-three years. Shaqiq then asked, "And what have you learnt during this period?" Hatim said, "Eight things." Shaqiq exclaimed, "We belong to Allah and to Him we return! I have spent my life teaching you and you have only learned eight things!?" Hatim stated, "I have learnt nothing else and I do not like to lie about it."
Shaqiq said, "So tell what these eight things are then." Hatim replied, "I looked around and saw that everyone has something or someone he loves and with whom he remains until the moment he dies. Then they part. Therefore I made good actions the object of my love so that when my hour of death comes, that which I love will accompany me to the grave." Shaqiq said, "You have done well, Hatim. So what is the second thing you have learned?"
Hatim said, "I reflected on the words of Allah, 'As for the one who fears the station of his Lord and holds his self back from passion, the Garden will be his dwelling-place.' (79:40-41) I know that what Allah said is the truth. Therefore I struggled with myself and strived to repel passion (hawa) until I was well settled in obedience to Allah.
"As for the third point, I looked at people and found that everyone treasures and exalts whatever valuable things he has in his possession. Then I examined the words of Allah, "That which you possess will vanish and that which is with Allah will go on" (16: 98) I then began to give to Allah anything valuable which came into my possession so that it would remain in His preservation.
"As for the fourth item, I looked around at people and saw that everyone places his trust in wealth, descent, honour and lineage. When I examined these things, I found them to be without substance. Then I considered the words of Allah, "Indeed the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the one who has the most fearful awareness (taqwa). (49:13) Therefore I devoted myself to fearful awareness of Allah so that I could have honour in the sight of Allah.
"Fifthly, I looked at people and saw them slandering and cursing each other out of envy. Then I examined the words of Allah, "It is We who distribute the livelihood they have in the life of this world." (43:31) So I abandoned envy and I befriended people, knowing that one's portion comes from Allah. Therefore I no longer harbour enmity for people.
"Sixthly, I saw men fighting each other and oppressing each other, so I turned to what Allah said, "Shaytan is an enemy to you, so take him for an enemy." (35:6) So I took shaytan alone to be my enemy and strove hard to be on my guard against him because Allah has testified that he is my enemy. Accordingly I ceased to hate anyone else.
"The seventh thing was that I saw everyone running after their daily bread and debasing themselves and entering into all sorts of haram things to obtain it. Then I examined the words of Allah, " "There is no creature on the face of the earth but that its provision is Allah's responsibility." (11:8) I knew that I was one of those creatures whose provision is Allah's responsibility, so I occupied myself with what I owe Allah and left my property with Him.
"The eighth thing was that I looked at people and saw that they all put their trust in something created - one in his estate, another in his wealth, another in his work and yet another in his physical health. They all put their trust in things which are created just as they are created. I referred back to Allah's words, ""Whoever puts his trust in Allah, He will be enough for him." (65:3) So I placed my trust in Allah and He is enough for me."
Shaqiq exclaimed, "Hatim, may Allah make you prosper! I have studied the sciences of the Torah, the Gospel, the Psalms, and the Immense Qur'an and I have found that every variety of good and religion revolves around these eight things. Whoever practises them practises all four books."
Gaya Hidup Sisa Sifar
Memetik kata-kata Lady Bird Johnson, “Alam sekitar adalah tempat kita bersatu; tempat dimana kita meraih minat yang sama; dan kita harus berkongsinya.”
Kebelakangan ini, kadar kemusnahan alam sekitar kita telah meningkat secara drastik. Sumber semulajadi kita yang sudah hampir kehabisan dan pencemaran-pencemaran yang kian berlaku mengakibatkan perubahan iklim yang tidak dijangka serta fenomena pemanasan global. Amalan gaya hidup sisa sifar perlu diamalkan bagi memperbaiki keadaan ini.
Gaya hidup sisa sifar ialah kaedah bagi meminimumkan penggunaan sumber yang bersifat tidak boleh diperbaharui, memelihara alam ini untuk kegunaan generasi akan datang dengan meminimumkan kemusnahan terhadap alam sekitar, pengurangan jumlah sisa yang dihantar ke tapak pelupusan sampah, dan menggalakkan gaya hidup yang mampan dan sihat. Konsep ini bukan hanya sekadar mengitar semula dan mengguna produk-produk kitar semula. Pada tahun 2002 tertubuhlah Badan Antarabangsa Sisa Sifar yang bermatlamatkan mendidik masyarakat dunia berkenaan konsep gaya hidup Sisa Sifar.
Matlamat komuniti sisa sifar adalah bagi mengurangkan ketoksikan bahan berbahaya sebelum dilupuskan ke alam sekitar dengan cara bersistematik. Ia boleh dilakukan dengan meminimumkan pembuangan sisa pepejal dan menggunakan teknik kitar semula serta pengguanan teknologi pengkomposan yang canggih. Dengan memulakan langkah-langkah drastik sebegini, misi ke arah gaya hidup lebih hijau (eco-friendly) dapat dijayakan.
Peralihan kepada kehidupan sisa sifar bukanlah satu perkara mudah yang boleh berlaku dalam sekelip mata, tentunya ia akan mengambil masa untuk masyarakat menyesuaikan diri dengan gaya kehidupan ini. Antara langkah permulaan untuk ke arah gaya hidup sisa sifar ialah: mengurangkan penggunaan barangan sekali pakai seperti kertas dan barangan plastik kerana menurut data terkini, ialah antara penyumbang terbesar kepada pencemaran; membahagikan sisa kepada dua kategori: barangan kitar semula dan tidak boleh dikitar semula; menggalakkan aktiviti secara berkumpulan seperti berkongsi kereta yang pasti akan menjimatkan bahan api yang tidak boleh diperbaharui dan akan mengurangkan pelepasan karbon; melakukan aktiviti seperti pengkomposan yang akan menukar sisa makanan kepada baja organik yang kemudiannya boleh digunakan untuk memperkayakan tanah yang menghasilkan lebih produktiviti pada hasil tanaman; menyertai NGO yang berkaitan dengan pembersihan alam sekitar; membantu mebersihkan sampah yang bertaburan di bandar, bersama-sama menjaga kebersihan bandar dan sentiasa berhubung dengan komuniti-komuniti yang memperjuangkan kehidupan sisa sifar.
Untuk mencapai objektif gaya hidup sisa sifar tentunya akan mengambil masa kerana ia mustahil boleh dicapai melalui usaha seseorang individu tetapi memerlukan penyertaan daripada semua lapisan masyarakat. Usaha ini perlu ditambah baik dan dipercepatkan kerana kadar 'kesihatan' alam semula jadi kita kini berada dibawah paras berbahaya. Sama-sama lakukan perubahan hari ini agar kita masih boleh mewariskan bumi yang masih sihat kepada generasi akan datang.
Pena yang lebih tajam daripada sebilah pedang
Peribahasa ini cukup terkenal yang timbul persoalan bagaimana ia boleh berlaku? Tidak seperti pedang, pena tidak boleh digunakan untuk mempertahankan diri. Jawapannya terletak pada hakikat bahawa tulisan yang tertulis melalui pena menyimpan nilai prestij sejarah, mengajar kita untuk tidak mengulangi kesilapan yang sama.
Sejarah lampau dipenuhi dengan peperangan dan kemusnahan yang disebabkan oleh perjuangan melaui mata, tetapi mata pena yang dipegang oleh penulisnya boleh mendidik dan menceritakan kepada kita tentang peristiwa yang telah berlaku dimasa lalu. Sejarah memang kaya dengan kisah dan teladan, ia ditulis dan disimpan dan sumbangan besar kepada pembangunan manusia. Kemenangan yang diraih melalui peperangan cuma bersifat sementara tetapi tulisan-tulisan, walaupun berabad-abad lamanya masih terus memberi inspirasi dan kesedaran di kalangan orang ramai.
Tulisan melalui pena boleh sampai ke lubuk hati manusia. Pena juga boleh memenangi cinta, memberi keberanian, dan meraih perhatian orang ramai, tidak sepertimana pedang yang hanya menakluki melalui kekerasan, menimbulkan ketakutan dan kebencian.
Kata-kata yang tertulis melalui pena berupaya sampai ke pelusuk dunia, tiada sempadan dan boleh memberi inspirasi dari sekecil-kecil minda hingga kepada para sarjana. Ia menaikkan suara rakyat menentang ketidakadilan dan memberi inspirasi kepada mereka untuk menentang kezaliman pihak berkuasa.
Sastera banyak membantu dalam membina watak manusia. Ilmu yang ditulis dengan pena itu tidak ternilai. Andai dunia ini masih diperintah dengan pedang, tanpa pena belum pasti kita akan mengecapi keamanan sebegini.
Pena lah yang menceritakan kesukaran, kekerasan dan kehancuran yang dilakukan melalui peperangan. Para penyair, penulis, dan ulama melalui pena terus mengobarkan semangat supaya kita mempertahankan negara sendiri.
Peperangan dilancarkan dengan pedang telah dihentikan melalui perjanjian damai yang ditulis dan ditandatangani oleh pena. Pedang hanya berguna dalam peperangan tetapi kita semua tahu bahawa selepas peperangan tamat, pena lah yang akan terus berbakti dalam mendidik manusia supaya terus membawa perubahan dalam masyarakat. Pena membantu manusia untuk terus berkembang, menyimpan idea-idea dan apa sahaja yang diyakini benar dan salah.
Penulisan akan sentiasa menjadi alat yang lebih berkuasa daripada keganasan yang dicipta oleh sebilah pedang. Oleh itu, pena itu akan sentiasa lebih 'kuat' daripada sebilah pedang.
Rakus meraih kepentingan diri punca kepada masalah dunia
T. S. Eliot (1888-1965) adalah seorang penyair moden yang hidup pada kedua-dua zaman perang dunia. Bait-bait puisinya dipengaruhi oleh watak-watak perang dunia tentang bagaimana rakusnya pemimpin dunia yang mengorbankan jutaan anak muda dalam peperangan kerana kemaruk untuk berkuasa semata-mata memenuhi nafsu sendiri namun mereka pandai berselindung disebalik semangat Patriotisma. Selain daripada perang dunia, banyak lagi contoh-contoh penyalahgunaan kuasa yang telah berlaku secara terang-terangan. Sejarah dipenuhi dengan manusia yang melakukan jenayah kejam bagi mengekalkan kedudukan mereka. Ia bukan sahaja berlaku kepada sejarah moden tetapi seawal permulaan tamadun manusia.
Keperluan untuk jadi berpengaruh ada dalam setiap diri manusia, ia berakar umbi pada psikologi kita kerana definasi manusia adalah 'haiwan' yang bersosial dan ia terus berkembang dikalangan masyarakat di mana ada ahlinya akan menjaga serta melindungi satu sama lain daripada ancaman luar. Demikianlah juga, mereka memerlukan sistem hierarki untuk berfungsi di mana satu atau beberapa ahli mereka dipilih untuk diisi jawatan penting dalam kepimpinan dan apabila masyarakat makin berkembang dan mempunyai struktur yang lebih rumit, nafsu untuk meraih pengaruh akan turut berkembang.
Umumnya, manusia boleh mencapai penghormatan melalui kuasa dan pengaruh, status sosial, rasa hormat, kekayaan, kemahiran dan keinginan tinggi untuk membuat impak.
Kerakusan manusia untuk jadi orang dihormati dan disegani akan sering menyebabkan berlaku kerosakan kepada dunia. Keinginan untuk dipandang tinggi, didengari, dan dihormati masyarakat selalunya mengakibatkan penderitaan dan kemusnahan kepada yang lain. Tidak salah mencapai kepuasan diri tetapi jangan sampai mengorbankan orang lain. Kepuasan diri perlu hadir dengan kerendahan hati dan belas kasihan terhadap mereka yang kurang bernasib baik. Dalam mengejar keghairahan untuk jadi orang yang berpengaruh, manusia sepatutnya fokus bagaimana menjalin perhubungan yang harmoni antara sesama manusia kerana naluri hormat dan memberi penghormatan itu memang sifat semulajadi seorang insan.
Sebagai kesimpulan satu kata-kata daripada Walter H. Judd, “Perkara yang penting bukanlah apa yang kita kumpulkan, tetapi apa yang kita sumbangkan.”
Biodiversiti: Benteng Semulajadi Melawan Perubahan Iklim
Biodiversiti adalah bahagian yang sangat penting untuk keutuhan kehidupan; sebenarnya, ia adalah kehidupan itu sendiri, seperti yang ditakrifkan oleh perkataan "biodiversiti": "bio" bermaksud kehidupan dan "kepelbagaian" bermaksud kepelbagaian di bumi. Petikan yang sangat indah oleh Thomas Eisner menggambarkannya sebagai "biodiversiti adalah khazanah terbesar yang kita miliki. Pengurangannya harus dicegah dengan segala cara". Biodiversiti ialah satu bentuk web atau rangkaian kehidupan di mana kita bergantung kepada segala-galanya, termasuk makanan, air, kayu atau kayu, kestabilan iklim, ubat-ubatan, dan ekonomi, serta semua perkara kecil atau besar lain yang kita perlukan untuk kita. kelangsungan hidup. Perubahan iklim adalah topik hangat hari ini; gas rumah hijau, pelepasan karbon, dan pemanasan global semuanya menyebabkan kenaikan suhu bumi yang serius. Sebaliknya, kita juga kehilangan biodiversiti kita kerana pelbagai sebab, seperti penggunaan tanah manusia, yang memaksa beberapa spesies berpindah dari habitat semula jadi mereka dan pupus. Tetapi seseorang harus menumpukan pada hakikat bahawa kedua-dua perubahan iklim dan biodiversiti saling berkaitan, jadi untuk matlamat pembangunan mampan, kedua-dua aspek ini harus terus dipertimbangkan sama sekali. Ia juga dikatakan oleh Elizabeth Mrema, Setiausaha Eksekutif Konvensyen Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu mengenai Kepelbagaian Biologi, bahawa “perubahan iklim adalah pemacu utama kehilangan biodiversiti. Dan perubahan iklim bergantung kepada biodiversiti sebagai sebahagian daripada penyelesaian. Jadi jelas kedua-duanya bertaut dan tidak boleh dipisahkan”. Jadi, hadiah paling penting yang ditawarkan oleh biodiversiti kepada kita ialah "kestabilan iklim."
Sekitar 50% daripada gas rumah hijau yang dihasilkan oleh sumber manusia diserap oleh ekosistem di darat dan di lautan, yang menyediakan penyerap karbon semula jadi dan boleh dipanggil penyelesaian biodiversiti kepada masalah perubahan iklim. Perlindungan dan pemulihan tutupan hutan membantu dalam pengurangan gas rumah hijau. Paya dan paya ialah ekosistem yang wujud sebagai tanah lembap dan meliputi 3% daripada tanah dunia, tetapi ia sangat cekap dalam menyerap dan menyimpan karbon, kira-kira dua kali lebih cekap daripada hutan. Ekosistem lautan, termasuk bakau dan rumput laut, juga membantu dalam penyerapan karbon dari atmosfera; mereka menyerap karbon empat kali lebih cepat daripada hutan, jadi mereka perlu digunakan sebagai alat yang berharga terhadap perubahan iklim.
Ekosistem yang sangat pelbagai adalah lebih berdaya tahan dan bersifat adaptif, jadi impak bencana alam seperti kemarau, banjir, dan kejadian cuaca ekstrem boleh diserap oleh ekosistem yang kaya dengan biodiversiti. Gangguan dipulihkan dengan lebih cepat dalam persekitaran yang pelbagai yang membantu dalam mengekalkan fungsi dan perkhidmatan.
Perubahan iklim juga menjejaskan keselamatan makanan, yang mana biodiversiti memainkan peranan penting. Pelbagai jenis tanaman dan ternakan boleh menyesuaikan diri dengan lebih baik kepada keadaan iklim yang berubah-ubah, memberikan pandangan yang hebat untuk keselamatan makanan. Pada masa kini, spesies tanaman liar juga dikaji untuk penerokaan dan pengenalpastian kultivar liar yang menjanjikan yang boleh menyesuaikan diri dengan lebih baik dengan keadaan iklim yang berubah-ubah.
Kesimpulannya, biodiversiti adalah pertahanan semula jadi kita yang paling kuat terhadap perubahan iklim dan mesti menjadi keutamaan kita untuk mengurangkan dan menyesuaikan diri dengan kesan perubahan iklim.
5 Women In Technology To Celebrate This Women’s Day
Let’s visit with “the first computer programmer,” the mother of COBOL, and others. When it comes to technological advances, there’s no one particular person to thank. Many people over centuries have contributed to various aspects of computer science bringing us the wonderful tools we use today. And here’s to reminiscing about the top five women in technology.
These five women made their marks over time because of their achievements in this industry. From computer programming to rocket trajectories to the internet, without each woman on this list, we may not be where we are today.
Top 5 women in technology who changed the world for the better
Is Technology Aiding Creativity?
Technology will be a hindrance to creativity until its potential is harnessed. The more we use the ability of technology, the more creative we become. When we see a screen, mobile, tablet or computer, we need to see it as a medium for creative expression.
Research has shown that everyone is born with creative powers, some are creatively active and others keep creativity dormant. The creative potential in our lives is immense and we need to bring it to the fore. A question that crosses the mind more often than not is, how to do it? In this age of technology, it's much easier to keep creativity intact and free-flowing.
The constrained education system prevents students from thinking creatively leading to assembly line workers rather than intellectually creative individuals. To address this situation, the need of the hour is to take creativity back to classrooms and use technology to enhance it.
With the capability of technology to transcend time and space, students have more opportunities to produce creative assignments and projects in a jiffy. As institutions of higher learning are encouraging the use of technology in classrooms, many educators are supporting the students creative minds. Number of Universities are turning to ICT (Information Communication Technology) to blend in technology and creativity for their students.
Creativity, Technology and Students
Technology has given engineering students an opportunity to be creative and innovative. Streams like robotic have given students to play around with and create something more humane. For these students using technology and creativity is being career ready.
For media students, professors are giving more opportunities and freedom to create and design assignments. The animation and gaming industry is technology and creativity driven. Students in this industry are relying on technology and programming to create new games and innovative solutions in everyday life. In the media industry, technology is creatively used to bring news, views, and events on to different platforms. Creativity and technology are inseparable where films, animation, and media industry are concerned.
The newage social media is also encouraging creativity among the gen x students. On platforms like YouTube, Instagram and Tumblr students are creating resources and information which can be accessed globally with the help of technology and creativity. Students are able to collaborate with like-minded people across the globe and engage in online discussion on various topics and come out with creative output.
As we are turning into the new millennium, students are using technology to expand creativity within and outside classrooms. It's like using both the sides of our brains to advance technology to enhance our creativity.
Schools could teach children how to be happy – but they foster competition instead
Diagnoses of mental disorders and drug prescriptions among school-age children have skyrocketed over the last two decades. The World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that 20% of children experience mental disorders – such as depression, anxiety and ADHD – at any given time.
This is a significant problem in the UK, where one in eight children between the ages of five and 19 has been diagnosed with an emotional or behavioural disorder. Even children as young as five are getting ill: according to the latest reports, 6% of five year olds suffer from a mental disorder. The challenges are greater still for children from low income families, who are four times more likely to develop mental health problems than their better off peers.
While home life, friends, social media and body image all have an impact on the mental health of children, a recent report from The Children’s Society found that more young people feel unhappy about school than any other area of their lives. Yet a growing body of research from around the world shows that schools can actually help children lead happier lives – if they value such outcomes.
Generally speaking, the UK's education system – like many others around the world – is geared toward competition. International rankings such as OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) rate the performance of schools, placing pressure on governors, teachers and pupils. As a result, schools seem to value the academic achievement of students over their mental health and well-being, which is reflected not only in the way students are taught, but also how they are assessed.
Teachers also face a lot of pressure to ensure their students obtain the highest grades possible. This is also contributing to poor mental health among teachers, with many developing mental health problems such as burnout, which negatively impacts their performance and can ultimately lead them to quit the profession.
While there are requirements for UK schools to teach pupils how to stay physically and mentally healthy, it's clearly not enough. All too often, academic demands on pupils provoke a sense of rivalry, rather than teaching them how to enjoy life and cultivate positive emotions. Yet educational performance does not need to come at the cost of children's happiness and well-being.
Education systems, including the UK's, have the capacity to respond to the growing mental health crisis among children. And research shows that promoting mental health and well-being in schools, on a par with core skills such as maths and literacy, has a positive impact on the self-esteem, academic achievement, social relations, motivation and career prospects of pupils.
The Nordic way
To see how schools can teach pupils to be happy, consider the education systems of some of the happiest countries in the world. For instance, all five of the Nordic countries – Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland – appear in the top ten happiest countries, according to the World Happiness Report.
It's well known that Nordic countries place a greater emphasis on social-emotional learning, which gives children the skills and knowledge to recognise and manage emotions in effectively. This forms the basis of well-being, and can significantly improve academic achievement among students.
Nordic countries also value the judgements of teachers over national examinations, and schools are not rated or ranked as they are in the UK or US. This prevents the education system from placing needless pressure on schools, leading to less rivalry, stress and anxiety among students, and lower rates of burnout among teachers.
When it comes to being healthy and happy, research suggests that money only matters to a certain extent. What matters most is developing self-knowledge – that is, knowing how you think, behave and manage your own emotions – and positive social relationships. This is evident in some Latin American countries. For example, Costa Rica and Mexico also score well on the World Happiness Index, and rank among the happiest countries according to the Happy Planet Index (which takes into account well-being, life expectancy and inequality, as well as ecological footprint).
These nations have a culture of promoting social networks of friends, families and neighbourhoods. Despite living on the most unequal continent in the world, research indicates that Latin American people are extremely resilient, meaning they have the ability to successfully overcome adversity and enjoy life in spite of difficult circumstances.
According to recent UN reports, schools in Latin America are also doing a good job in promoting resilience among children. Environmental sustainability is also a key part of education policies in places like Costa Rica. This promotes empathy toward other members of the society – a core skill of social-emotional learning.
My own research has found that education systems in both developing and developed countries value forming responsible citizens through valuing equality, harmony and diversity among others. Yet none of the countries included in the analysis – China, England, Mexico and Spain – seem to place an explicit value on mental health in their education systems.
Education systems around the world can tackle the mental health crisis among children – if they set out to do so. And countries that prioritise children's happiness and well-being offer a strong starting point. By promoting positive relationships over rivalry, and learning over league tables, children around the world can be given the chance to flourish.
A special school for homeless
To keep children of local traders off the streets of Johor Baru, Rayhan Ahmad started a ‘school’
JOHOR BARU, Sept 5 — Twenty-seven-year-old Rayhan Ahmad and several of his friends have been holding evening classes for children of traders in Johor Baru’s popular Bazaar Karat since 2017.
“We started out on a volunteer basis... most of these children are considered homeless or have parents who work as traders at Bazaar Karat.
“The idea started as we want to discourage these children from being exposed to unhealthy activities as they will often be seen roaming the streets at night as their parents are busy working, while the homeless kids will be begging for money,” said Rayhan.
Today, classes are conducted upstairs in a pre-war shophouse that is called Sekola Baroka in the city centre.
The former executive assistant at a state government agency decided to quit his job and do this full-time.
The founding member of Sekola Baroka said the first two years teaching the children, mainly aged between three to 12, were not easy.
“The makeshift school attracted a fair amount of children from lower income families as well as traders’ children.
“We taught them the 3Rs (reading, writing and arithmetic) on a fully volunteer basis,” said Rayhan, adding that the friends who assisted him came from varied backgrounds with some being former teachers as well as lecturers.
Rayhan said after two years of operating from the streets, he and his friends finally were offered the first floor of a shophouse located in the middle of Bazaar Karat that operates daily from 7pm to midnight.
He explained that he pays RM2,000 per month for the current premises.
“However, the floor is also shared with a traders’ association office where the rental is split with the school having to pay 75 per cent while the remainder is paid by the association.
“Being the main tenant, we also pay the water and electricity bills. Basically, the school needs about RM2,000 to run our classes for the children,” said Rayhan, adding that some of the monthly commitments were offset through fee payments of between RM30 and RM70 a month by parents.
However, Rayhan made it clear that the school will still accept children of parents who can’t afford the fee.
He said what mattered most was the children’s well-being where they able to be in a much safer environment while learning or picking up a skill.
Rayhan said the school also has skills and crafts workshops where interesting activities such as sewing and also soap-making are held.
He said most of the raw items needed for the projects are donated by business owners nearby.
“Since Sekola Baroka is not a profit-making enterprise, we depend on donations and also grants to help us continue the projects.
“We run a cafe from late mornings to the afternoons as a means to assist in our daily operations,” said Rayhan who added that community-focused urban regeneration organisation Think City Sdn Bhd assisted with grants for the past two years.
“Currently, we have 27 children between the ages of three to 12 years coming to the school,” he said.
Malaysia perlu ubah sistem pendidikan
SHAH ALAM – Malaysia perlu membuka mata untuk mengubah sistem pendidikan negara bersesuaian dengan keadaan semasa penularan pandemik koronavirus (Covid-19) bagi menyelesaikan masalah stres dihadapi anak-anak, ibu bapa dan guru ekoran normal baharu pembelajaran dalam talian (e-pembelajaran) sekarang.
Pakar Motivasi Pelajar dan Ibu Bapa, Fauziah Sirat berkata, pendekatan negara luar memotong kurikulum atau silibus pembelajaran dalam mendepani krisis Covid-19 wajar dicontohi negara ini berbanding masih mengikut sistem lama yang menjadi amalan 100 tahun lalu.
Menurutnya, tindakan proaktif negara luar itu diketahui berdasarkan pengalaman beliau sendiri yang mengikuti persidangan pendidikan secara maya bersama ramai pendidik luar negara ketika negara melaksanakan Perintah Kawalan Pergerakan (PKP) pada Mac lalu.
Katanya, dalam keadaan negara ketika ini kembali melaksanakan PKP Bersyarat (PKPB) di beberapa lokasi, pendekatan tersebut perlu diperhalusi.
“Antara pendekatan yang negara luar lakukan adalah dengan mereka memotong kurikulum yang asalnya banyak kepada seringkas-ringkasnya sekadar untuk memberikan kemahiran asas kepada anak-anak yang boleh dilakukan secara persendirian di rumah.
“Saya lihat ini merupakan satu tindakan yang bijak sebab bila kita laksnakan e-pembelajaran atau saya lebih suka panggil ‘emergency remote learning’ kita sebenarnya dalam satu situasi belum lagi mahir dalam mempraktikkan kaedah ini,” katanya selaku panelis pada Wacana Sinar Edisi ke-202 bertajuk ‘PKPB: Belajar dari rumah, siapa lebih stres?’ yang disiarkan di semua platform digital Sinar Harian malam tadi.
Wacana itu turut menampilkan panelis Ketua Pegawai Pembangunan Latihan&Teknikal Sekolah Sri Aria, Nurul Najmi Mohd Haniffah dan Pendakwah Selebriti, Izzhar Nazri serta personaliti televisyen, Ismail Adnan selaku moderator.
Mengulas lanjut, Fauziah percaya guru-guru di negara ini sekarang juga masih lagi belajar bagaimana nak menjadi guru yang baik dalam e-pembelajar dan tumpuan ketika ini sebenarnya lebih kepada untuk memindahkan kandungan pembelajaran tradisional dalam bilik darjah ke dalam alam maya.